Database Forge Class

The Database Forge Class contains methods that help you manage your database.

Initializing the Forge Class

Important

In order to initialize the Forge class, your database driver must already be running, since the forge class relies on it.

Load the Forge Class as follows:

$this->load->dbforge()

You can also pass another database object to the DB Forge loader, in case the database you want to manage isn’t the default one:

$this->myforge = $this->load->dbforge($this->other_db, TRUE);

In the above example, we’re passing a custom database object as the first parameter and then tell it to return the dbforge object, instead of assigning it directly to $this->dbforge.

Note

Both of the parameters can be used individually, just pass an empty value as the first one if you wish to skip it.

Once initialized you will access the methods using the $this->dbforge object:

$this->dbforge->some_method();

Creating and Dropping Databases

$this->dbforge->create_database(‘db_name’)

Permits you to create the database specified in the first parameter. Returns TRUE/FALSE based on success or failure:

if ($this->dbforge->create_database('my_db'))
{
        echo 'Database created!';
}

$this->dbforge->drop_database(‘db_name’)

Permits you to drop the database specified in the first parameter. Returns TRUE/FALSE based on success or failure:

if ($this->dbforge->drop_database('my_db'))
{
        echo 'Database deleted!';
}

Creating and Dropping Tables

There are several things you may wish to do when creating tables. Add fields, add keys to the table, alter columns. CodeIgniter provides a mechanism for this.

Adding fields

Fields are created via an associative array. Within the array you must include a ‘type’ key that relates to the datatype of the field. For example, INT, VARCHAR, TEXT, etc. Many datatypes (for example VARCHAR) also require a ‘constraint’ key.

$fields = array(
        'users' => array(
                'type' => 'VARCHAR',
                'constraint' => '100',
        ),
);
// will translate to "users VARCHAR(100)" when the field is added.

Additionally, the following key/values can be used:

  • unsigned/true : to generate “UNSIGNED” in the field definition.
  • default/value : to generate a default value in the field definition.
  • null/true : to generate “NULL” in the field definition. Without this, the field will default to “NOT NULL”.
  • auto_increment/true : generates an auto_increment flag on the field. Note that the field type must be a type that supports this, such as integer.
$fields = array(
        'blog_id' => array(
                'type' => 'INT',
                'constraint' => 5,
                'unsigned' => TRUE,
                'auto_increment' => TRUE
        ),
        'blog_title' => array(
                'type' => 'VARCHAR',
                'constraint' => '100',
        ),
        'blog_author' => array(
                'type' =>'VARCHAR',
                'constraint' => '100',
                'default' => 'King of Town',
        ),
        'blog_description' => array(
                'type' => 'TEXT',
                'null' => TRUE,
        ),
);

After the fields have been defined, they can be added using $this->dbforge->add_field($fields); followed by a call to the create_table() method.

$this->dbforge->add_field()

The add fields method will accept the above array.

Passing strings as fields

If you know exactly how you want a field to be created, you can pass the string into the field definitions with add_field()

$this->dbforge->add_field("label varchar(100) NOT NULL DEFAULT 'default label'");

Note

Multiple calls to add_field() are cumulative.

Creating an id field

There is a special exception for creating id fields. A field with type id will automatically be assinged as an INT(9) auto_incrementing Primary Key.

$this->dbforge->add_field('id');
// gives id INT(9) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT

Adding Keys

Generally speaking, you’ll want your table to have Keys. This is accomplished with $this->dbforge->add_key(‘field’). An optional second parameter set to TRUE will make it a primary key. Note that add_key() must be followed by a call to create_table().

Multiple column non-primary keys must be sent as an array. Sample output below is for MySQL.

$this->dbforge->add_key('blog_id', TRUE);
// gives PRIMARY KEY `blog_id` (`blog_id`)

$this->dbforge->add_key('blog_id', TRUE);
$this->dbforge->add_key('site_id', TRUE);
// gives PRIMARY KEY `blog_id_site_id` (`blog_id`, `site_id`)

$this->dbforge->add_key('blog_name');
// gives KEY `blog_name` (`blog_name`)

$this->dbforge->add_key(array('blog_name', 'blog_label'));
// gives KEY `blog_name_blog_label` (`blog_name`, `blog_label`)

Creating a table

After fields and keys have been declared, you can create a new table with

$this->dbforge->create_table('table_name');
// gives CREATE TABLE table_name

An optional second parameter set to TRUE adds an “IF NOT EXISTS” clause into the definition

$this->dbforge->create_table('table_name', TRUE);
// gives CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS table_name

You could also pass optional table attributes, such as MySQL’s ENGINE:

$attributes = array('ENGINE' => 'InnoDB');
$this->dbforge->create_table('table_name', FALSE, $attributes);
// produces: CREATE TABLE `table_name` (...) ENGINE = InnoDB DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci

Note

Unless you specify the CHARACTER SET and/or COLLATE attributes, create_table() will always add them with your configured char_set and dbcollat values, as long as they are not empty (MySQL only).

Dropping a table

Execute a DROP TABLE statement and optionally add an IF EXISTS clause.

// Produces: DROP TABLE table_name
$this->dbforge->drop_table('table_name');

// Produces: DROP TABLE IF EXISTS table_name
$this->dbforge->drop_table('table_name',TRUE);

Renaming a table

Executes a TABLE rename

$this->dbforge->rename_table('old_table_name', 'new_table_name');
// gives ALTER TABLE old_table_name RENAME TO new_table_name

Modifying Tables

Adding a Column to a Table

$this->dbforge->add_column()

The add_column() method is used to modify an existing table. It accepts the same field array as above, and can be used for an unlimited number of additional fields.

$fields = array(
        'preferences' => array('type' => 'TEXT')
);
$this->dbforge->add_column('table_name', $fields);
// Executes: ALTER TABLE table_name ADD preferences TEXT

If you are using MySQL or CUBIRD, then you can take advantage of their AFTER and FIRST clauses to position the new column.

Examples:

// Will place the new column after the `another_field` column:
$fields = array(
        'preferences' => array('type' => 'TEXT', 'after' => 'another_field')
);

// Will place the new column at the start of the table definition:
$fields = array(
        'preferences' => array('type' => 'TEXT', 'first' => TRUE)
);

Dropping a Column From a Table

$this->dbforge->drop_column()

Used to remove a column from a table.

$this->dbforge->drop_column('table_name', 'column_to_drop');

Modifying a Column in a Table

$this->dbforge->modify_column()

The usage of this method is identical to add_column(), except it alters an existing column rather than adding a new one. In order to change the name you can add a “name” key into the field defining array.

$fields = array(
        'old_name' => array(
                'name' => 'new_name',
                'type' => 'TEXT',
        ),
);
$this->dbforge->modify_column('table_name', $fields);
// gives ALTER TABLE table_name CHANGE old_name new_name TEXT

Class Reference

class CI_DB_forge
add_column($table[, $field = array()[, $_after = NULL]])
Parameters:
  • $table (string) – Table name to add the column to
  • $field (array) – Column definition(s)
  • $_after (string) – Column for AFTER clause (deprecated)
Returns:

TRUE on success, FALSE on failure

Return type:

bool

Adds a column to a table. Usage: See Adding a Column to a Table.

add_field($field)
Parameters:
  • $field (array) – Field definition to add
Returns:

CI_DB_forge instance (method chaining)

Return type:

CI_DB_forge

Adds a field to the set that will be used to create a table. Usage: See Adding fields.

add_key($key[, $primary = FALSE])
Parameters:
  • $key (array) – Name of a key field
  • $primary (bool) – Set to TRUE if it should be a primary key or a regular one
Returns:

CI_DB_forge instance (method chaining)

Return type:

CI_DB_forge

Adds a key to the set that will be used to create a table. Usage: See Adding Keys.

create_database($db_name)
Parameters:
  • $db_name (string) – Name of the database to create
Returns:

TRUE on success, FALSE on failure

Return type:

bool

Creates a new database. Usage: See Creating and Dropping Databases.

create_table($table[, $if_not_exists = FALSE[, array $attributes = array()]])
Parameters:
  • $table (string) – Name of the table to create
  • $if_not_exists (string) – Set to TRUE to add an ‘IF NOT EXISTS’ clause
  • $attributes (string) – An associative array of table attributes
Returns:

TRUE on success, FALSE on failure

Return type:

bool

Creates a new table. Usage: See Creating a table.

drop_column($table, $column_name)
Parameters:
  • $table (string) – Table name
  • $column_name (array) – The column name to drop
Returns:

TRUE on success, FALSE on failure

Return type:

bool

Drops a column from a table. Usage: See Dropping a Column From a Table.

drop_database($db_name)
Parameters:
  • $db_name (string) – Name of the database to drop
Returns:

TRUE on success, FALSE on failure

Return type:

bool

Drops a database. Usage: See Creating and Dropping Databases.

drop_table($table_name[, $if_exists = FALSE])
Parameters:
  • $table (string) – Name of the table to drop
  • $if_exists (string) – Set to TRUE to add an ‘IF EXISTS’ clause
Returns:

TRUE on success, FALSE on failure

Return type:

bool

Drops a table. Usage: See Dropping a table.

modify_column($table, $field)
Parameters:
  • $table (string) – Table name
  • $field (array) – Column definition(s)
Returns:

TRUE on success, FALSE on failure

Return type:

bool

Modifies a table column. Usage: See Modifying a Column in a Table.

rename_table($table_name, $new_table_name)
Parameters:
  • $table (string) – Current of the table
  • $new_table_name (string) – New name of the table
Returns:

TRUE on success, FALSE on failure

Return type:

bool

Renames a table. Usage: See Renaming a table.