Alternate PHP Syntax for View Files

If you do not utilize a templating engine to simplify output, you’ll be using pure PHP in your View files. To minimize the PHP code in these files, and to make it easier to identify the code blocks it is recommended that you use PHPs alternative syntax for control structures and short tag echo statements. If you are not familiar with this syntax, it allows you to eliminate the braces from your code, and eliminate “echo” statements.

Alternative Echos

Normally to echo, or print out a variable you would do this:

<?php echo esc($variable); ?>

With the alternative syntax you can instead do it this way:

<?= esc($variable) ?>

Alternative Control Structures

Controls structures, like if, for, foreach, and while can be written in a simplified format as well. Here is an example using foreach:


<?php foreach ($todo as $item): ?>

    <li><?= esc($item) ?></li>

<?php endforeach ?>


Notice that there are no braces. Instead, the end brace is replaced with endforeach. Each of the control structures listed above has a similar closing syntax: endif, endfor, endforeach, and endwhile

Also notice that instead of using a semicolon after each structure (except the last one), there is a colon. This is important!

Here is another example, using if/elseif/else. Notice the colons:

<?php if ($username === 'sally'): ?>

    <h3>Hi Sally</h3>

<?php elseif ($username === 'joe'): ?>

    <h3>Hi Joe</h3>

<?php else: ?>

    <h3>Hi unknown user</h3>

<?php endif ?>