CodeIgniter User Guide Version 2.2.6

Database Forge Class

The Database Forge Class contains functions that help you manage your database.

Table of Contents

Initializing the Forge Class

Important:  In order to initialize the Forge class, your database driver must already be running, since the forge class relies on it.

Load the Forge Class as follows:


Once initialized you will access the functions using the $this->dbforge object:



Permits you to create the database specified in the first parameter. Returns TRUE/FALSE based on success or failure:

if ($this->dbforge->create_database('my_db'))
    echo 'Database created!';


Permits you to drop the database specified in the first parameter. Returns TRUE/FALSE based on success or failure:

if ($this->dbforge->drop_database('my_db'))
    echo 'Database deleted!';

Creating and Dropping Tables

There are several things you may wish to do when creating tables. Add fields, add keys to the table, alter columns. CodeIgniter provides a mechanism for this.

Adding fields

Fields are created via an associative array. Within the array you must include a 'type' key that relates to the datatype of the field. For example, INT, VARCHAR, TEXT, etc. Many datatypes (for example VARCHAR) also require a 'constraint' key.

$fields = array(
                        'users' => array(
                                                 'type' => 'VARCHAR',
                                                 'constraint' => '100',

// will translate to "users VARCHAR(100)" when the field is added.

Additionally, the following key/values can be used:

$fields = array(
                        'blog_id' => array(
                                                 'type' => 'INT',
                                                 'constraint' => 5,
                                                 'unsigned' => TRUE,
                                                 'auto_increment' => TRUE
                        'blog_title' => array(
                                                 'type' => 'VARCHAR',
                                                 'constraint' => '100',
                        'blog_author' => array(
                                                 'type' =>'VARCHAR',
                                                 'constraint' => '100',
                                                 'default' => 'King of Town',
                        'blog_description' => array(
                                                 'type' => 'TEXT',
                                                 'null' => TRUE,

After the fields have been defined, they can be added using $this->dbforge->add_field($fields); followed by a call to the create_table() function.


The add fields function will accept the above array.

Passing strings as fields

If you know exactly how you want a field to be created, you can pass the string into the field definitions with add_field()

$this->dbforge->add_field("label varchar(100) NOT NULL DEFAULT 'default label'");

Note: Multiple calls to add_field() are cumulative.

Creating an id field

There is a special exception for creating id fields. A field with type id will automatically be assinged as an INT(9) auto_incrementing Primary Key.


Adding Keys

Generally speaking, you'll want your table to have Keys. This is accomplished with $this->dbforge->add_key('field'). An optional second parameter set to TRUE will make it a primary key. Note that add_key() must be followed by a call to create_table().

Multiple column non-primary keys must be sent as an array. Sample output below is for MySQL.

$this->dbforge->add_key('blog_id', TRUE);
// gives PRIMARY KEY `blog_id` (`blog_id`)

$this->dbforge->add_key('blog_id', TRUE);
$this->dbforge->add_key('site_id', TRUE);
// gives PRIMARY KEY `blog_id_site_id` (`blog_id`, `site_id`)

// gives KEY `blog_name` (`blog_name`)

$this->dbforge->add_key(array('blog_name', 'blog_label'));
// gives KEY `blog_name_blog_label` (`blog_name`, `blog_label`)

Creating a table

After fields and keys have been declared, you can create a new table with

// gives CREATE TABLE table_name

An optional second parameter set to TRUE adds an "IF NOT EXISTS" clause into the definition

$this->dbforge->create_table('table_name', TRUE);
// gives CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS table_name

Dropping a table

Executes a DROP TABLE sql

// gives DROP TABLE IF EXISTS table_name

Renaming a table

Executes a TABLE rename

$this->dbforge->rename_table('old_table_name', 'new_table_name');
// gives ALTER TABLE old_table_name RENAME TO new_table_name

Modifying Tables


The add_column() function is used to modify an existing table. It accepts the same field array as above, and can be used for an unlimited number of additional fields.

$fields = array(
                        'preferences' => array('type' => 'TEXT')
$this->dbforge->add_column('table_name', $fields);

// gives ALTER TABLE table_name ADD preferences TEXT


Used to remove a column from a table.

$this->dbforge->drop_column('table_name', 'column_to_drop');


The usage of this function is identical to add_column(), except it alters an existing column rather than adding a new one. In order to change the name you can add a "name" key into the field defining array.

$fields = array(
                        'old_name' => array(
                                                         'name' => 'new_name',
                                                         'type' => 'TEXT',
$this->dbforge->modify_column('table_name', $fields);

// gives ALTER TABLE table_name CHANGE old_name new_name TEXT